AP Bio Reproduction/Development Study Guide (Ch 46-47)

 

Ch 46 – Animal Reproduction

What are the advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction?

What are some examples of asexual reproduction?

What is hermaphroditism? What are the types? How do they differ? Be able to give examples.

How do animals make sure eggs and sperm meet (be able to give examples of how mates find each other or recognize mates) and how do they get the timing right?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of internal fertilization?

What is a spermatheca?

What is a cloaca?

Be able to diagram, recognize anatomical structures and outline the flow of eggs/semen in the human reproductive tracts. Also be able to explain the functions of the accessory structures in each.

How do oogenesis and spermatogenesis differ?

Be able to outline the human menstrual cycle. How is it different from an estrous cycle?

What hormones regulate the menstrual cycle? How do they interact with each other to do this?
How does a pregnancy interrupt the course of the menstrual cycle?

Be able to outline the human development during each trimester (this goes further in the next chapter).
Why is the first trimester the most sensitive to disturbance in a pregnancy (most spontaneous abortions occur in the first 3rd of pregnancy)?

How do the various contraception methods interfere with pregnancy?

Ch 47 – Animal Development

What is the acrosomal reaction and what are the significant events in it?

What are the slow and fast blocks to polyspermy? Why are they necessary?

What is the cortical reaction? What does it do?

What are the important developmental stages starting with a zygote?

Be able to outline the general idea of what occurs in gastrulation (using a frog as your example most likely). What is the destiny of the forming “dent”?

Be able to give/recognize general derivatives of the three embryonic germ layers.

Be able to outline the process of organogenesis in a frog?

How is the neural tube formed?

What is the function of each of the extra-embryonic membranes? How do they originate?

What things regulate morphogenesis?

How can a change in cell shape be important in morphogenesis?

What is cell “crawling”? How is accomplished? How is the ECM and cytoskeleton involved in all of this?

What are CAMs? What are cadherins?

How are induction and cytoplasmic determinants important to a cell’s fate?

On a related note, what is fate mapping?

How did W. Vogt carry out the first fate mapping experiments?

What is the Spemann Organizer? What are the AER and ZPA and what do they do in a chick embryo?