AP Biology Behavior Study Guide – Ch 51

 

One of the temptations that I think we make is to fall into the belief that conscious behavior is involved in much of this. Keep in mind that behavior is in large part unconsciously determined, and is ultimately determined by weeding out maladaptive behaviors…

So here’s what I’d like you to know!

What the proximate and ultimate sources of behavior are.

How genes as well as environment can influence behavior (including specific examples).

What innate behavior is and what “developmentally fixed” means.

How innate behavior evolves.

What a fixed action pattern is (also be able to give examples), and why they are valuable to animals.

How can FAPs be a downfall for animals (read about mayflies and roads).

What are some human FAPs?
Be able to relate songbirds to several aspects in the chapter including: multi-song behavior and mate selection; learning vs maturation; imprinting and sensitive periods; song behavior and territoriality

Know what optimal foraging theory is and examples. Also be able to relate this back to the lab.

What is learning? Be able to talk about the Vervet monkey example. How is learning different from maturation. How does social interaction and habituation play a role in learning?

What is imprinting. Be able to recognize imprinting at different times or on parents as well as the young.

What is associative learning? What are the two types? Which is of more value to a dog trainer? Why?

What are the two hypotheses for the origin of play?

What is cognition?

What are kinesis and taxis? How do these relate to tropisms (discussed before)?

What are some examples of how animals figure out how to migrate or move through space? What challenges does a migrating animal face in correctly orienting itself?

Be able to explain how natural selection explains behaviors like competition within species, territoriality, aggression, courtship, or cooperation.

Continuing the above…Why waste energy on a complex mating dance or caring for your sister’s kids?

Why is unlikely for animals to “fight to the death”? When might they do this?
Why is there reconciliation behavior in very social species (but not in non-social species)?

What is the pecking order? How is it useful to a population?

How does parental investment or certainty of paternity affect mate selection and child care.

What are monogamy, polygamy, polygyny, and polyandry? Under what circumstances is each chosen?

What is a signal in behavioral terms?

What are pheremones? What effects do they have?

How do bees communicate?

What is altruism? Why is it practiced? Be able to give examples.

What is inclusive fitness? Hamilton’s rule? Kin selection? Coefficient of relatedness?