AP Bio Gene Expression/Control Review Sheet

 

The test will cover the last half of chapter 17 (though you should be well acquainted with the material from the first half), Chapter 18 and 19. Here’s a quick review…Are you ready?

Ch 17

You should know the process of transcription (including the different stages), the different nucleotide sequences involved (promoter, terminator, transcription unit, etc), the other things that have to be around for transcription to take place.

What has to be done to Eukaryotic RNA to make it functional? What are the functions of the 5’ cap and the poly A tail?

What is RNA splicing? What is the difference between an intron and an exon? How does this relate to the number of polypeptides that can be expressed by a single eukaryotic gene? How does this change (yet again) our definition of a gene? What are domains (in a DNA intron sense)?

How do those introns get out anyway?

What are the different types (and functions of) RNAs?

What is an anticodon? What is the wobble effect? What happens at the different sites on a ribosome?

What are the different stages of translation? What does a stop codon code for?

What is a polyribosome? How do polypeptides decide whether to stay in the cytoplasm or go to the rough ER?

How are the transcription/translation processes different in prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

What are the different types of mutations? Which kinds are most severe? How do they arise?

Ch 18

What are the parts of a virus? How were they discovered?  How are they classified?

What is a “host range”? How does this relate to a virus’ ability to get into a cell and for new viruses to emerge?

How do the lytic and lysogenic cycles differ? How is the lysogenic cycle related to transduction?

How do the strategies of RNA viruses differ from DNA ones? What are the ways new viruses “emerge”? How are viruses related to cancer?

What are prions and viroids?

What are the ways bacteria can take up new DNA? You should be familiar with the processes behind each of these processes.

What are F and R factors? F+ cells? Hfr cells? How are transposons related to all this stuff? How do bacteria get new and useful genes?

How do insertion sequences and composite transposons differ?

What options does your avg bacteria have if it wants to control a metabolic pathway?

You should be familiar with the parts of an operon, how they interact, and how inducible and repressible enzymes differ. How do negative and positive gene control differ?

Ch 19

How does DNA packing affect gene control in eukaryotes?

What is repetitive DNA? What are multigene families? How do they relate to the formation of new genes? What are pseudogenes? How are they related to transposons?

What is gene amplification? What are Immunoglobulins? How are they made?

You need to be familiar with all of the different ways and levels at which cells can control gene expression, including gene expression, Chromatin packing, DNA methylation, Histone acetylation, control elements and transcription factors, alternative RNA splicing, mRNA degredation, translational control by regulatory proteins, proteasomic protein degradation, etc. (Damn, that’s a lot of control!)

We’ve looked at cancer before. Now, how does the stuff in chapter 19 extend what you know? What are proto-oncogenes, oncogenes, and tumor-suppressor genes? What’s the big deal with the Ras and P53 genes? What does it really take for a cell to truly become cancerous?