AP Biology Plant Form/Function Study Guide
As always, treat this only as a starting point…
Ch 35 – Structure and Growth
How does growth and development in plants differ markedly from in animals?
Be able to identify and describe structure and function of plant organ, tissue, and cell types.
Be able to distinguish monocots from dicots.
What are able to talk about the parts of a stem and the concept of apical dominance?
Be able to give examples of the different types of modified shoots.
What are the different types of meristems, where are they found and what is the function of each?
Be able to discuss and distinguish primary and secondary growth as well as relating these processes both to roots and shoots.
What is vascular cambium and what is its role in producing vascular tissue?
What is lignin and how does it relate to wood?
Be familiar with Arabidopsis and how it is helping us to better understand plant development. What makes it a good model?
How does the plane of cell division determine growth, and how is the plane determined?
You should also go back and review floral structure as well as the effects of meristem identity and organ identity genes on the initiation and development of floral structure.
Ch 36 – Transport
What is a proton pump, how do they work, and what are they used for?
What factors are included in water potential?
Be able to calculate water potential.
What is turgor pressure?
What are aquaporins?
What are tonoplasts, protoplasts, and apoplasts?
How (there are several ways) does material move from the soil into xylem vessels (fig 36.7)
In what ways is the absorptive surface area increased on a plant’s roots?
What does each party receive in a micorrhizal association?
What is the Casparian Strip and what is its role in transport?
What why does water pressure build up and cause guttation?
Be able to explain how the process of water movement up the xylem is accomplished without a plant expending energy? (refer to fig 36.11)
Why do plants lose water through transpiration and approximately what percent of water loss is through the stomata?
What is the transpiration to photosynthesis ratio and how much does it differ between C3 and C4 plants?
What is evaporative cooling and how does it aid plants?
What factors are most likely to increase transpiration?
What are three cues that contribute to stomata opening?
What is a circadian rhythm?
What are xerophytes? What are some adaptations they use to reduce water lose?
What is translocation?
What is the main solute in phloem?
How is the direction of transport different in xylem and phloem?
How does the phenomenon of “source” and “sink” assist in the movement of sugars?
Be familiar with figure 36.17
How do scientists use aphids in measuring phloem flow rates?